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Map Matching

Introduction to Map Matching

In GPS-based navigation systems, devices often provide GPS coordinates that might be imprecise and don't necessarily align with actual road networks. This discrepancy can be addressed by a process known as map matching, which aligns these potentially inaccurate GPS points to their correct road segments, ensuring the accuracy of navigation routes and providing a seamless navigation experience for users.

Import Map Matching Functions

To leverage the map matching functionalities offered by SedonaMaps, you need to import the relevant class. The MapMatching class from the sedonamaps module provides these capabilities:

from sedonamaps.core import MapMatching as mm
import com.wherobots.sedonamaps.MapMatchingDf
import com.wherobots.sedonamaps.MapMatchingDf;

Loading OSM Data

Once you've accessed the MapMatching class, the next step is to load data from the OpenStreetMap (OSM). SedonaMaps supports loading an OSM file into a Sedona DataFrame. This DataFrame is then enriched with the necessary attributes for map matching.

If your OSM data is saved at a local path like data/osm.xml, or on a remote storage such as an AWS S3 path, you can load this data into the MapMatching instance (mm) using the following code:

dfEdge = mm.loadOSM("data/osm.xml", "[car]")
dfEdge.show(5)
val dfEdge = MapMatchingDf.loadOSM(resourceFolder + "osm2.xml", "[car]")
dfEdge.show(5)
Dataset dfEdge = MapMatchingDf.loadOSM(resourceFoler + "data/osm2.xml", "[car]");
dfEdge.show(5)

The [car] parameter is the road type filter, which can be used to filter out road segments that are not suitable for cars.

Upon executing the above code, you can expect an output that aligns with the example below:

+--------------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+----------+-----------+
|            geometry|       src|     dst|   src_lat|    src_lon|   dst_lat|    dst_lon|
+--------------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+----------+-----------+
|LINESTRING (-83.0...|  62545092|62545090| 42.350883| -83.071323|42.3502907|-83.0711018|
|LINESTRING (-83.0...|7592807480|62545090|42.3495189|-83.0708043|42.3502907|-83.0711018|
|LINESTRING (-83.0...|8129132226|62545316| 42.363371|-83.0546103|42.3634571|-83.0546522|
|LINESTRING (-83.0...|  62859327|62545316| 42.363539| -83.054686|42.3634571|-83.0546522|
|LINESTRING (-83.0...|8129132225|62545316|42.3635311|-83.0547655|42.3634571|-83.0546522|
+--------------------+----------+--------+----------+-----------+----------+-----------+
only showing top 5 rows

This table represents the top five rows of the loaded OSM data, showcasing the geometry and attributes of the road segments.

In the context of the table:

  • src (source): Represents the starting point or origin of a path. Each src has associated coordinates given by src_lat and src_lon.
  • dst (destination): Refers to the endpoint of a path. Each dst has coordinates represented by dst_lat and dst_lon.

Simply put, the table illustrates various paths in a network, detailing their starting (src) and ending (dst) points with corresponding geographic coordinates.

Create Sedona DataFrame of GPS Trips

With the Sedona library, which provides APIs and data structures for spatial operations, you can transform a list of GPS tracks into a Sedona DataFrame where each track is represented as a LineString.

Follow these steps to create a Sedona DataFrame of GPS trips:

  1. Format the given GPS coordinates into strings that can be converted into LineString objects.
  2. Next, Use Sedona's API to create a DataFrame of these LineString objects.

Here are the GPS tracks,

gps_tracks = [
    (42.355618, -83.054237), (42.35562, -83.054238), (42.355615, -83.054253), (42.355684, -83.054297), (42.355719, -83.054198),
    (42.355781, -83.054022), (42.355749, -83.054001), (42.355781, -83.054022), (42.355719, -83.054198), (42.35565, -83.054155),
    (42.355587, -83.054116), (42.355656, -83.053914), (42.35573, -83.053715), (42.355749, -83.053728), (42.35573, -83.053715),
    (42.355656, -83.053914), (42.355722, -83.05396), (42.355839, -83.053635), (42.355918, -83.053637), (42.355993, -83.053428),
    (42.355967, -83.053411), (42.355993, -83.053428), (42.355918, -83.053637), (42.355839, -83.053635), (42.355886, -83.053504),
    (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.356038, -83.053086), (42.356027, -83.053079), (42.356038, -83.053086), (42.356105, -83.052904),
    (42.356126, -83.052918), (42.356105, -83.052904), (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.355933, -83.053149), (42.35602, -83.052916),
    (42.35609, -83.052727), (42.356102, -83.052735), (42.35609, -83.052727), (42.35602, -83.052916), (42.355933, -83.053149),
    (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.356243, -83.052523), (42.356265, -83.052537), (42.356243, -83.052523), (42.3563, -83.052367),
    (42.356273, -83.052349), (42.3563, -83.052367), (42.356362, -83.052196), (42.356388, -83.052125), (42.356409, -83.052139),
    (42.356407, -83.052145), (42.356409, -83.052139), (42.35646, -83.052173), (42.356499, -83.052073), (42.356424, -83.052024),
    (42.356348, -83.051973), (42.35638, -83.051886), (42.356395, -83.051847), (42.356423, -83.051866), (42.356395, -83.051847),
    (42.35638, -83.051886), (42.356348, -83.051973), (42.356424, -83.052024), (42.356457, -83.051932), (42.356562, -83.051641),
    (42.356578, -83.051652), (42.356562, -83.051641), (42.35672, -83.051204), (42.356732, -83.051212), (42.35672, -83.051204),
    (42.356722, -83.051198), (42.356795, -83.050995), (42.356827, -83.051015), (42.356816, -83.051046), (42.356827, -83.051015),
    (42.356795, -83.050995), (42.356724, -83.050952), (42.356761, -83.050841), (42.356838, -83.050876), (42.356865, -83.050894),
    (42.356859, -83.050911), (42.356865, -83.050894), (42.356838, -83.050876), (42.356923, -83.050643), (42.356891, -83.050622),
    (42.356923, -83.050643), (42.356999, -83.050433), (42.356927, -83.050386), (42.356953, -83.050315), (42.356978, -83.050332),
    (42.356953, -83.050315), (42.356927, -83.050386), (42.35684, -83.050328), (42.356827, -83.050364), (42.35684, -83.050328),
    (42.356722, -83.050249), (42.35674, -83.050198), (42.356722, -83.050249), (42.356506, -83.050105), (42.356494, -83.050139),
    (42.356506, -83.050105), (42.356443, -83.050063), (42.356431, -83.050096), (42.356443, -83.050063), (42.356388, -83.050025),
    (42.356399, -83.049994), (42.356388, -83.050025), (42.356357, -83.050005), (42.356345, -83.049897), (42.356349, -83.049884),
    (42.35638, -83.049903), (42.356349, -83.049884), (42.356386, -83.049777), (42.356407, -83.04979), (42.356386, -83.049777),
    (42.356464, -83.049549), (42.356459, -83.049533)
]
val gps_tracks: List[(Double, Double)] = List(
  (42.355618, -83.054237), (42.35562, -83.054238), (42.355615, -83.054253), (42.355684, -83.054297), (42.355719, -83.054198),
  (42.355781, -83.054022), (42.355749, -83.054001), (42.355781, -83.054022), (42.355719, -83.054198), (42.35565, -83.054155),
  (42.355587, -83.054116), (42.355656, -83.053914), (42.35573, -83.053715), (42.355749, -83.053728), (42.35573, -83.053715),
  (42.355656, -83.053914), (42.355722, -83.05396), (42.355839, -83.053635), (42.355918, -83.053637), (42.355993, -83.053428),
  (42.355967, -83.053411), (42.355993, -83.053428), (42.355918, -83.053637), (42.355839, -83.053635), (42.355886, -83.053504),
  (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.356038, -83.053086), (42.356027, -83.053079), (42.356038, -83.053086), (42.356105, -83.052904),
  (42.356126, -83.052918), (42.356105, -83.052904), (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.355933, -83.053149), (42.35602, -83.052916),
  (42.35609, -83.052727), (42.356102, -83.052735), (42.35609, -83.052727), (42.35602, -83.052916), (42.355933, -83.053149),
  (42.355999, -83.053194), (42.356243, -83.052523), (42.356265, -83.052537), (42.356243, -83.052523), (42.3563, -83.052367),
  (42.356273, -83.052349), (42.3563, -83.052367), (42.356362, -83.052196), (42.356388, -83.052125), (42.356409, -83.052139),
  (42.356407, -83.052145), (42.356409, -83.052139), (42.35646, -83.052173), (42.356499, -83.052073), (42.356424, -83.052024),
  (42.356348, -83.051973), (42.35638, -83.051886), (42.356395, -83.051847), (42.356423, -83.051866), (42.356395, -83.051847),
  (42.35638, -83.051886), (42.356348, -83.051973), (42.356424, -83.052024), (42.356457, -83.051932), (42.356562, -83.051641),
  (42.356578, -83.051652), (42.356562, -83.051641), (42.35672, -83.051204), (42.356732, -83.051212), (42.35672, -83.051204),
  (42.356722, -83.051198), (42.356795, -83.050995), (42.356827, -83.051015), (42.356816, -83.051046), (42.356827, -83.051015),
  (42.356795, -83.050995), (42.356724, -83.050952), (42.356761, -83.050841), (42.356838, -83.050876), (42.356865, -83.050894),
  (42.356859, -83.050911), (42.356865, -83.050894), (42.356838, -83.050876), (42.356923, -83.050643), (42.356891, -83.050622),
  (42.356923, -83.050643), (42.356999, -83.050433), (42.356927, -83.050386), (42.356953, -83.050315), (42.356978, -83.050332),
  (42.356953, -83.050315), (42.356927, -83.050386), (42.35684, -83.050328), (42.356827, -83.050364), (42.35684, -83.050328),
  (42.356722, -83.050249), (42.35674, -83.050198), (42.356722, -83.050249), (42.356506, -83.050105), (42.356494, -83.050139),
  (42.356506, -83.050105), (42.356443, -83.050063), (42.356431, -83.050096), (42.356443, -83.050063), (42.356388, -83.050025),
  (42.356399, -83.049994), (42.356388, -83.050025), (42.356357, -83.050005), (42.356345, -83.049897), (42.356349, -83.049884),
  (42.35638, -83.049903), (42.356349, -83.049884), (42.356386, -83.049777), (42.356407, -83.04979), (42.356386, -83.049777),
  (42.356464, -83.049549), (42.356459, -83.049533)
)
double[][] gps_tracks = {
    {42.355618, -83.054237}, {42.35562, -83.054238}, {42.355615, -83.054253}, {42.355684, -83.054297}, {42.355719, -83.054198},
    {42.355781, -83.054022}, {42.355749, -83.054001}, {42.355781, -83.054022}, {42.355719, -83.054198}, {42.35565, -83.054155},
    {42.355587, -83.054116}, {42.355656, -83.053914}, {42.35573, -83.053715}, {42.355749, -83.053728}, {42.35573, -83.053715},
    {42.355656, -83.053914}, {42.355722, -83.05396}, {42.355839, -83.053635}, {42.355918, -83.053637}, {42.355993, -83.053428},
    {42.355967, -83.053411}, {42.355993, -83.053428}, {42.355918, -83.053637}, {42.355839, -83.053635}, {42.355886, -83.053504},
    {42.355999, -83.053194}, {42.356038, -83.053086}, {42.356027, -83.053079}, {42.356038, -83.053086}, {42.356105, -83.052904},
    {42.356126, -83.052918}, {42.356105, -83.052904}, {42.355999, -83.053194}, {42.355933, -83.053149}, {42.35602, -83.052916},
    {42.35609, -83.052727}, {42.356102, -83.052735}, {42.35609, -83.052727}, {42.35602, -83.052916}, {42.355933, -83.053149},
    {42.355999, -83.053194}, {42.356243, -83.052523}, {42.356265, -83.052537}, {42.356243, -83.052523}, {42.3563, -83.052367},
    {42.356273, -83.052349}, {42.3563, -83.052367}, {42.356362, -83.052196}, {42.356388, -83.052125}, {42.356409, -83.052139},
    {42.356407, -83.052145}, {42.356409, -83.052139}, {42.35646, -83.052173}, {42.356499, -83.052073}, {42.356424, -83.052024},
    {42.356348, -83.051973}, {42.35638, -83.051886}, {42.356395, -83.051847}, {42.356423, -83.051866}, {42.356395, -83.051847},
    {42.35638, -83.051886}, {42.356348, -83.051973}, {42.356424, -83.052024}, {42.356457, -83.051932}, {42.356562, -83.051641},
    {42.356578, -83.051652}, {42.356562, -83.051641}, {42.35672, -83.051204}, {42.356732, -83.051212}, {42.35672, -83.051204},
    {42.356722, -83.051198}, {42.356795, -83.050995}, {42.356827, -83.051015}, {42.356816, -83.051046}, {42.356827, -83.051015},
    {42.356795, -83.050995}, {42.356724, -83.050952}, {42.356761, -83.050841}, {42.356838, -83.050876}, {42.356865, -83.050894},
    {42.356859, -83.050911}, {42.356865, -83.050894}, {42.356838, -83.050876}, {42.356923, -83.050643}, {42.356891, -83.050622},
    {42.356923, -83.050643}, {42.356999, -83.050433}, {42.356927, -83.050386}, {42.356953, -83.050315}, {42.356978, -83.050332},
    {42.356953, -83.050315}, {42.356927, -83.050386}, {42.35684, -83.050328}, {42.356827, -83.050364}, {42.35684, -83.050328},
    {42.356722, -83.050249}, {42.35674, -83.050198}, {42.356722, -83.050249}, {42.356506, -83.050105}, {42.356494, -83.050139},
    {42.356506, -83.050105}, {42.356443, -83.050063}, {42.356431, -83.050096}, {42.356443, -83.050063}, {42.356388, -83.050025},
    {42.356399, -83.049994}, {42.356388, -83.050025}, {42.356357, -83.050005}, {42.356345, -83.049897}, {42.356349, -83.049884},
    {42.35638, -83.049903}, {42.356349, -83.049884}, {42.356386, -83.049777}, {42.356407, -83.04979}, {42.356386, -83.049777},
    {42.356464, -83.049549}, {42.356459, -83.049533}
};

Use the following code to create the Sedona DataFrame of LineStrings/GPS paths:

ids = []
lines = []
i = j = k = 0
lineStr = ""

while k < len(gps_tracks):
  if j == 15 or k == len(gps_tracks)-1:
    ids.append(i)
    lines.append(lineStr)
    i += 1
    j = 0
    lineStr = ""
  if j == 0:
    lineStr += str(gps_tracks[j][1]) + "," + str(gps_tracks[j][0])
  else:
    lineStr += "," + str(gps_tracks[j][1]) + "," + str(gps_tracks[j][0])
  j += 1
  k += 1

dfPaths = sedona.createDataFrame(zip(ids, lines), ["ids", "lon_lat_seq"])
dfPaths = dfPaths.withColumn("geometry", expr("ST_LineStringFromText(lon_lat_seq, ',')")).drop("lon_lat_seq");
dfPaths.show(5);
var ids = List[Int]()
var lines = List[String]()
var i = 0
var j = 0
var k = 0
var lineStr = ""

while (k < gps_tracks.length) {
  if (j == 15 || k == gps_tracks.length - 1) {
    ids = ids :+ i
    lines = lines :+ lineStr
    i += 1
    j = 0
    lineStr = ""
  }
  if (j == 0) {
    lineStr += gps_tracks(j)._2 + "," + gps_tracks(j)._1
  } else {
    lineStr += "," + gps_tracks(j)._2 + "," + gps_tracks(j)._1
  }
  j += 1
  k += 1
}

val dfPaths = ids.zip(lines).toDF("ids", "lon_lat_seq")
.withColumn("geometry", expr("ST_LineStringFromText(lon_lat_seq, ',')"))
.drop("lon_lat_seq")

dfPaths.show(5)
List<Integer> ids = new ArrayList<>();
List<String> lines = new ArrayList<>();
int i = 0;
int j = 0;
int k = 0;
String lineStr = "";

while (k < gps_tracks.length) {
  if (j == 15 || k == gps_tracks.length - 1) {
    ids.add(i);
    lines.add(lineStr);
    i += 1;
    j = 0;
    lineStr = "";
  }
  if (j == 0) {
    lineStr += gps_tracks[j][1] + "," + gps_tracks[j][0];
  } else {
    lineStr += "," + gps_tracks[j][1] + "," + gps_tracks[j][0];
  }
  j += 1;
  k += 1;
}

Dataset<Row> dfPaths = org.apache.spark.sql.functions.zip(ids, lines).toDF("ids", "lon_lat_seq")
    .withColumn("geometry", functions.expr("ST_LineStringFromText(lon_lat_seq, ',')"))
    .drop("lon_lat_seq");

dfPaths.show(5);

Output will be similar to the following:

+---+--------------------+
|ids|            geometry|
+---+--------------------+
|  0|LINESTRING (-83.0...|
|  1|LINESTRING (-83.0...|
|  2|LINESTRING (-83.0...|
|  3|LINESTRING (-83.0...|
|  4|LINESTRING (-83.0...|
+---+--------------------+
only showing top 5 rows

Map Matching on Batch Data

Now that you have both the OSM edges DataFrame and the GPS trips DataFrame, you're ready to perform map matching. The below code is used to execute map matching and display the top 5 rows of the resulting DataFrame.

dfMmResult = mm.performMapMatching(dfEdge, dfPaths, "geometry", "geometry")
dfMmResult.show(5)
val dfMmResult = MapMatchingDf.performMapMatching(dfEdge, dfPaths, "geometry", "geometry")
dfMmResult.show(5)
Dataset matchingResultDf = MapMatchingDf.performMapMatching(edgesDf, pathsSpatialDf, "geometry", "geometry");
matchingResultDf.show();

The parameters in the method performMapMatching are as follows:

  • dfEdge: A DataFrame of road segments from OpenStreetMap.
  • dfPaths: A DataFrame of GPS paths to be aligned to roads.
  • "geometry": The column in dfEdge holding road geometry.
  • "geometry": The column in dfPaths holding GPS path geometry.

The output should be similar to the following table:

+---+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
|ids|     observed_points|      matched_points|       matched_nodes|
+---+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
|  4|[[-83.054237, 42....|[[-83.05423815457...|[4071942207, 6260...|
|  7|[[-83.054237, 42....|[[-83.05423815457...|[4071942207, 6260...|
|  1|[[-83.054237, 42....|[[-83.05423815457...|[4071942207, 6260...|
|  3|[[-83.054237, 42....|[[-83.05423815457...|[4071942207, 6260...|
|  5|[[-83.054237, 42....|[[-83.05423815457...|[4071942207, 6260...|
+---+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
only showing top 5 rows

Visualizing the result using SedonaKepler

To visualize the map matching result using SedonaKepler, you can use the following code:

my_map = SedonaKepler.create_map()
SedonaKepler.add_df(my_ap, dfEdge, name="Road Network")
SedonaKepler.add_df(my_ap, dfMmResult.select("observed_points"), name="Observed Points")
SedonaKepler.add_df(my_ap, dfMmResult.select("matched_points"), name="Matched Points")

my_map

Below is a visual representation of an example map matching result:

  • Red Line: Illustrates the raw GPS trajectories, which capture the vehicle's original movement as recorded by the GPS device.
  • Green Line: Highlights the trajectories after map matching, reflecting a refined path that aligns the GPS observations with the actual road network.

SedonaKepler

A comparison of the red and green lines reveals the adjustments made by the map-matching algorithm, ensuring that raw GPS data corresponds accurately with established roadways and provides a precise depiction of the vehicle's journey through the network.

Learn more about SedonaMaps

As a comprehensive map application toolbox, SedonaMaps provides many off-the-shelf scalable tools. In this tutorial, we just focus on a minimum example. Detailed explanation of each tool can be found at References.


Last update: February 9, 2024 03:04:11